On MacCurdy farm we try to maximize the power of the sun by getting all of our animals on pasture. With a fleet of pastured poultry pens (chicken tractors) already in action, it was time to get our turkeys onto pasture with the good ol’ fashioned grazer dome raising.
Turkeys, depending on the quality of pasture, can meet up to 70% of their dietary needs from pasture. At present we don’t do a rotation with cattle. Instead, we harvest a first cut off of our hayfields nearest the farm and then start our meatking chickens and commercial turkeys onto pasture. We have used Joel Salatin’s golden ratio by housing turkeys with meat chickens with some level of success but this year we felt it was time to construct a new type of housing for our turkey poults. Generally, one would keep young poults inside the grazer dome only until they are aerial predator proof at which point the dome becomes enclosed by our poultry netting so they can get out and get working on naturally fertilizing our hayfields.
We pride ourselves on being erudite in all aspects of preparation and decision making concerning our animals so I set out earlier this summer to a farm in Colpitts Settlement, just outside of Riverview, NB for some networking and to pick up my favorite breed of heritage chicken, the Delaware. Maplehurst farms, owned and operate by the Beatons, had a beautiful pasture based rotational operation in place in their picturesque slice of heaven. After a tour of their pasture and some introductions to their Berkshire pigs and Dexter cattle, I found myself intrigued by a portable hoop house design that they were currently housing turkeys in. My project gears immediately started to turn at the sight of the housing on skids. “How am I going to find the time to build this?” I thought to myself. After, an exchange of emails, Jason shared the materials list along with pictures and other bits of advice on his Facebook page that set the project into motion. I attribute the design of the grazer dome to the Beatons and a book entitled, “Chicken Coops: 45 building ideas for housing your flock“.
I have a tendency to apply a twist to projects to make them unique to MacCurdy Farm but I made very little alterations with this project. However, I will highlight those aspect of the grazer dome that are different than the ones at Maplehurst farms to show you other options in building the turkey grazer domes.
As with most projects, you build from the ground up. However, after calling around to local hardware stores I determined that 16′ 4″ x 4″ lumber only came in treated form, which we do not use on the farm. Option B, fire up the Stihl chainsaw and cut down four straight cedar trees, delimb, and truck them to a local saw mill. For a small price I had two 16′ 4″ x 4″s and two 10′ 4″ x 4″ along with two 16′ 1″ x 4″s sawn up. On the two 16′ pieces you will need to angle the ends to create a skid plate on each piece. I measured 6″ back from the top and then plumbed to the bottom. Next, measure 2 inches down from the front of the piece. Finally, using your speed square or a straight edge, connect both marks to form your cut line. I used a chainsaw to make a clean cut. After arriving back at the farm, I quickly trimmed the 4 x 4 lumber to length and then laid them out in a rectangle with each corner propped up on two foot 4 x 4 blocks. With a cordless drill, I first predrilled three holes at each corner with a 6″ 1/2″ bit. Working solo, this allowed me to bring about a tight and properly aligned fit between the 16′ and 10′ four by fours. I used three 6″ by 5×8″ lag screws on each corner. Afterwards, I took four pieces of 4 x 4 and using a speed square made two 45 degree cuts to create a corner brace for each corner. Using the speed square to bring the corner into square, I then used 4″ galvanized spiral nails to secure the corner braces. You will use the same type of bracing to plumb the corners of the side walls except you will use 2 x 4 in place of 4 x 4.
I chose to go with 24″ studs on the side walls, which equates to a 32.5″ jump for the turkeys to get onto the roosts. You will require approximately 140 linear feet of 2 x 4 to complete the side walls, which does not include the end framing. An additional 50 linear feet for end framing would suffice, but I just used old 2 x 4 hanging around the farm. I always take the approach of using left over materials on previous jobs to finish new projects. I placed vertical studs at 4′ on centre on each 16′ side and at 2′ on centre on the 10′ end walls. The fewer studs used will allow more air to pass through the fenced in side walls. The opening in the door is 32″ between each jack stud to allow sufficient space for several chickens, turkeys, or pigs to cross the threshold at once. These structures can be used for varying purposes on your small scale family farm.
Use 1/4″ or 1/2″ hardware cloth that has been galvanized after the weld around the side walls. I use a 3′ roll around the completely perimeter of the structure, only cutting out the piece over the door opening. On the ends, you can use chicken wire above the hardware cloth. You can use a staple gun or hammer in small fencing staples. A slight overlap onto the 4 x 4 skid is suggested.
The grazer dome is equipped with a 1/4″ braided metal cable. First use your cordless drill with a 1/2″ wood bit to dril out a hole on the front 4 x 4. Push the 1/2″ eye bolt through the openings on either side and place a washer and nut over the ends. Tighten. Outside, thread about 8 – 10 inches of the metal cable through the eye bolt. Using cable clamps, tighten the cable clamp over the loop ends that you have formed. The grazer dome is now ready to be pulled with a tractor or truck or team of horses. It’s your choice, really. If you happen to pull transports for sport, this is an option as well. Just saying.
Take all 5 of your 20′ length 3/8″ rebar and cut them to a length equivalent to half of the circumference of a circle with a 10′ diameter, or in my case a 10’6″ diameter. Input your number into C = pi (3.14) x diameter and then half your result to achieve the required length of your rebar. With a cut-off blade on a grinder, cut the pieces to length. I did it on a hot day so I kept a pail of water close by in case a spark caught anything on fire. Prior to installing the dome ribs, first equip the cordless drill with a 1/2″ wood drill bit. At four inch intervals drill a hole at a depth of 1″ into the top plate of the side wall. You will need to drill 10 holes. Good math, right! Ideally, find an accommodating person to assist you in placing the rebar into the predrilled holes. If that said person is nowhere to be found, place the end of one side of the rebar into the hole and gently walk your hand up the rebar until you have created a semi-circle to bend the rebar into the hole on the opposite side wall. Do this five times. Next, set the 4′ side of the remesh along the side wall and tie at multiple locations on each rebar until it is securely fastened. Cut metal wire to 4″ lengths in advance, which you will use to attach the remesh to the rebar. A simple pair of pliers or vice grips will work to twist the two ends together. Bend the ends at the top of the dome downward to avoid creating rips and tears when the tarpaulin is pulled over the dome. Once all 8 sheets of remesh have been securely fastened to the rebar ribs, take some 2″ screws and screw them in at an angle over top of the rebar entrance into the side wall. One screw at each hole will suffice. On the end framing, you can also use the cordless drill to install screws to keep the rebar ribs in place over top of the framing.
Blue or Green
Chose a colored tarp to impede some of the sun light. Shade is a necessity for birds in the field. The tarp will act to provide shade and shelter from rain. I went with a 20′ x 20′ tarp as I hope to create a roll up side wall in the future. Positioning and securing the tarp to the side wall will require an additional person or two. Gently zigzag the tarp over top of the dome until it is evenly divided. Using the 16′ 1″x4″ pieces of cedar, screw into the 1 x 4 over top of the tarp and into the side wall on one side of the grazer dome. Do the same on the other side. At this point, you can grab a pair of scissors or a utility knife to cut off the excess tarp or do as I did and roll it up on the ends where you will sandwich the tarp between boards cut to fit inside of the contour of the end wall. Screw through the boards over top of the rolled up tarp into the end framing. This will provide anchoring for the tarp on all four sides of the structure.
Human entry at the front, turkey door at the back. I won’t bother to give dimensions with the door, but take care to leave a 1/2″ of space between the width of the door and the width of the opening so that the door closes without jamming. I double latch the door at the same height at the T hinges. A quick google seach of barn doors or a look at my photos will set you on the right track. We’ll be adding a sliding turkey door between two of the wall studs at the rear in the near future. This will allow the turkeys to come and go from the dome with more facility.
Turkeys, like other birds, prefer to roost in the night time. I fitted the grazer dome with two roosts supported by angle braces on either side. They bear all 200 lbs of farmer MacCurdy plus some. In my opinion, it is essential to include angle braces if you are housing larger birds. I always enjoy having a staring competition with the birds while they are on the roosts. They usually give me a look that I anthropomorphize into curiosity.
It is best to move the grazer dome when the manure application inside of it covers the better part of the pasture. We currently move the dome after 48 hours in one place. We undo the poultry netting, move the s17 solar charger to the next location, drag the grazer dome to it’s new piece of salad bar, reposition the poultry netting, and lead the turkeys to the next rotation. Lots of feeders, waterers, and the occasional greenhouse lettuce or edible weeds treat keeps the turkeys happy. Not to mention they are free to explore the expanse of their surroundings visually, run around their portable enclosure, and, when the opportunity arises, chase Farmer Mac’s children into a flight of fear…haha. Turkeys are remarkably clever, communal, and tasty. Support your local farmers and get out and visit a small local family farm when you have the chance.
2 16’ 4*4
2 10’ 4*4
2 8’ 4*4 for cross bracing the sled
8 sheets 4*8 remesh
5 20’ lengths of ½’ rebar
A roll of rebar wire tie
A tarp at least 16’ * 16’
12 5/8” by 6” lag bolts with washers
Bag of screws or nails
If you want to build a wall some more 2*4 will be required
Also some more lumber to board in the ends